NGOvs商业?

(《中国财富》约稿)

上期《中国财富》中有一篇文章《穷人的新装》,报道了一些企业做公益的案例。很多企业做公益,仅仅是让消费者感觉良好,以为通过消费就为改善世界做出了贡献。而这些企业的慈善行为往往只是表面光鲜,实际并无助于当地社区的成长,甚至还会破坏贫困地区本来就脆弱的经济系统。

这不由得让我想到了企业做公益的镜像:NGO做商业,或者NGO和商业的合作。这几年流行的一个概念“社会企业”就反应了NGO在做商业上面的努力,但很遗憾,在国内可以真正称得上社会企业的寥寥无几,更多的是一些NGO把自己的某个项目进行商业化尝试,即便如此成功的也不多。为什么呢?因为NGO的事业模式和企业的事业模式在根本上是不一样的。NGO事业模式的最大特点是:付款者和获得服务者往往不是同一个人或群体,所以NGO才会采用捐赠模式,由捐赠人提供资金,交给NGO来为弱势群体提供服务。如果NGO要做商业,就需要发现服务对象的付费能力(如小额贷款)或创收能力(如黑暗中的对话),并设计出创新的产品或服务推向市场。这种创新实际是挑战了社会认知,例如在小额贷款中,它挑战的是:贫困妇女怎么可能按期还款?可想而知,这种挑战比传统商业的产品设计挑战要大得多,也难得多。所以说,NGO做商业很难,不是因为NGO自身的能力欠缺,而是社会问题的复杂程度要远远大于满足个人需求的复杂程度。

那么,NGO和商业合作呢?这似乎是一条更容易的道路。对应到《穷人的新装》中的案例,这简直是一种天作之合。试想一下,如果TOMS不是自己做慈善,而是和当地的扶贫NGO合作,共同设计项目,可能最后出来的方案是培训当地的制鞋师傅,发展本地制鞋业,这,不是更加可持续吗?可是且慢!为什么TOMS没有这么做的?即使是后来爆发了这么多的讨论和抗议,TOMS也没有改变它的捐赠模式,这又是为什么呢?我们只能说,企业有企业的关注和诉求,大多数(不是全部)企业的关注和诉求就是让消费者感觉良好,它们也有善意,但它们对社会问题的理解往往是不专业的。因此,它们的活动表现出来就可能会和NGO的原则和立场有所冲突。这时候,NGO在和企业的合作过程中,更多的要承担起教育的责任,而这种教育往往是一个漫长的过程,很难通过一次合作活动达成观念和行为的转变。

这再次证明了,世界上没有一条好走的路。

NGOvs商业?》上有1条评论

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